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Fractures (800-829) Fracture of skull (800-804) Fracture of vault of skull (800) Fracture of base of skull (801) Fracture of face bones (802) Other and unqualified skull fractures (803) Fracture of neck and trunk (805-809) Fracture of vertebral column without mention of spinal cord lesion (805) Fracture of vertebral column with spinal cord lesion (806) Fracture of rib(s) treatment cervical cancer proven 100mcg cytotec, sternum medications high blood pressure order genuine cytotec online, larynx treatment 2 degree burns order 100 mcg cytotec free shipping, and trachea (807) Fracture of pelvis (808) Ill-defined fractures of bones of trunk (809) Fracture of upper limb (810-819) Fracture of clavicle (810) Fracture of scapula (811) 109 Fracture of humerus (812) Fracture of radius and ulna (813) Fracture of carpal bone(s) (814) Fracture of metacarpal bone(s) (815) Fracture of one or more phalanges of hand (816) Multiple fractures of hand bones (817) Ill-defined fractures of upper limb (818) Multiple fractures involving both upper limbs treatment hepatitis b order cytotec 100mcg fast delivery, and upper limb with rib(s) and sternum (819) Fracture of lower limb (820-829) Fracture of neck of femur (820) Fracture of other and unspecified parts of femur (821) Fracture of patella (822) Fracture of tibia and fibula (823) Fracture of ankle (824) Fracture of one or more tarsal and metatarsal bones (825) Fracture of one or more phalanges of foot (826) Other, multiple and ill-defined fractures of lower limb (827) Multiple fractures involving both lower limbs, lower with upper limb, and lower limb(s) with rib(s) and sternum (828) Fracture of unspecified bones (829) Dislocation (830-839) Dislocation of jaw (830) 110 Dislocation of shoulder (831) Dislocation of elbow (832) Dislocation of wrist (833) Dislocation of finger (834) Dislocation of hip (835) Dislocation of knee (836) Dislocation of ankle (837) Dislocation of foot (838) Other, multiple, and ill-defined dislocations (839) Sprains and strains of joints and adjacent muscles (840-848) Sprains and strains of shoulder and upper arm (840) Sprains and strains of elbow and forearm (841) Sprains and strains of wrist and hand (842) Sprains and strains of hip and thigh (843) Sprains and strains of knee and leg (844) Sprains and strains of ankle and foot (845) Sprains and strains of sacroiliac region (846) Sprains and strains of other and unspecified parts of back (847) Other and ill-defined sprains and strains (848) Intracranial injury, excluding those with skull fracture (850-854) Concussion (850) Cerebral laceration and contusion (851) 111 Subarachnoid, subdural, and extradural hemorrhage, following injury (852) Other and unspecified intracranial hemorrhage following injury (853) Intracranial injury of other and unspecified nature (854) Internal injury of chest, abdomen, and pelvis (860-869) Traumatic pneumothorax and Hemothorax (860) Injury to heart and lung (861) Injury to other and unspecified intrathoracic organs (862) Injury to gastrointestinal tract (863) Injury to liver (864) Injury to spleen (865) Injury to kidney (866) Injury to pelvic organs (867) Injury to other intra-abdominal organs (868) Internal injury to unspecified or ill-defined organs (869) Open wound (870-897) Open wound of head, neck, and trunk (870-879) Open wound of ocular adnexa (870) Open wound of eyeball (871) Open wound of ear (872) Other open wound of head (873) Open wound of neck (874) Open wound of chest (wall) (875) 112 Open wound of back (876) Open wound of buttock (877) Open wound of genital organs (external), including traumatic amputation (878) Open wound of other and unspecified sites, except limbs (879) Open wound of upper limb (880-887) Open wound of shoulder and upper arm (880) Open wound of elbow, forearm and wrist (881) Open wound of hand except finger(s) alone (882) Open wound of finger(s) (883) Multiple and unspecified open wound of upper limb (884) Traumatic amputation of thumb (complete) (partial) (885) Traumatic amputation of other finger(s) (complete) (partial) (886) Traumatic amputation of arm and hand (complete) (partial) (887) Open wound of lower limb (890-897) Open wound of hip and thigh (890) Open wound of knee, leg [except thigh] and ankle (891) Open wound of foot except toe(s) alone (892) Open wound of toe(s) (893) Multiple and unspecified open wound of lower limb (894) Traumatic amputation of toe(s) (complete) (partial) (895) Traumatic amputation of foot (complete) (partial) (896) Traumatic amputation of leg(s) (complete) (partial) (897) 113 Injury to blood vessels (900-904) Injury to blood vessels of head and neck (900) Injury to blood vessels of thorax (901) Injury to blood vessels of abdomen and pelvis (902) Injury to blood vessels of upper extremity (903) Injury to blood vessels of lower extremity and unspecified sites (904) Late effects of injuries, poisonings, toxic effects, and other external causes (905-909) Late effects of musculoskeletal and connective tissue injuries (905) Late effect of fracture of skull and face bones (905. Consequently, the only way to distinguish a Nature of Injury Code from an External Cause Code is by looking for the Nature of Injury flag (the number 1 ) that appears in the last position of that multiple cause data field. Also note that Nature of Injury Codes are never used for the underlying cause of death and thus only appear in the multiple cause data fields. Railway accidents (E800-E807) Railway accident involving collision with rolling stock (E800) Railway employee (E800. Data collection and analysis from multiple research sites: the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network. Paper presented at: International Conference on Rare Diseases & Orphan Drugs; February 16, 2005; Stockholm, Sweden. A contact registry for persons with rare diseases: a tool for recruiting and retaining participants in a clinical research network. The Adverse Event Management System for the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network. Paper presented at: Inventory and Evaluation of Clinical Research Networks; May 31, 2006; Washington, D. A contact registry for persons with rare diseases: a tool for recruiting and retaining. An automated communication system in a Contact Registry for persons with rare diseases: tools for retaining potential clinical research participants. Achieving standardized medication data in clinical research studies: two approaches and applications for implementing RxNorm. An automated contact registry for persons with rare diseases: scalable tools for identifying and communicating with clinical research participants. Down syndrome: National conference on patient registries, research databases, and biobanks. Patient Registries to Support Research in Rare Diseases – Experience from the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network. Patient Registries to Support Research in Rare Diseases – Experience from the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network. Poster presented at the 2012 International Conference on Rare Diseases & Orphan Drugs. Episodic ataxia type 1: Characterization of the disease and its effect on quality of life. Paper presented at: American Academy of Neurology; April 21-28, 2012; New Orleans. Richesson R, Shereff D, Lloyd J, Young K, Guillette H, Paulus K, Harris J, Cuthbertson D, Krischer J, Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network. The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Contact Registry for the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium. Leduc R, Hall C, Shereff D, Lloyd J, Young K, Guillette H, Harris J, Gandolfo L, Cuthbertson D, Krischer J. Paper presented at: Society of Research Administrators International Meeting; October 21. A small n sequential multiple assignment randomized trial design for use in rare disease research. Data standards in clinical research: gaps, overlaps, challenges and future directions. An automated standardized system for managing adverse events in clinical research networks. Trans-Atlantic data harmonization in the classification of medicines and dietary supplements: a challenge for epidemiologic study and clinical research. Cross-sectional multicenter study of patients with urea cycle disorders in the United States. Heterogeneous but "standard" coding systems for adverse events: Issues in achieving interoperability between apples and oranges. An automated communication system in a contact registry for persons with rare diseases: scalable tools for identifying and recruiting clinical research participants. Establishing a consortium for the study of rare diseases: the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium. Achieving standardized medication data in clinical research studies: two approaches and applications for implementing RxNorm. A neurodevelopmental survey of Angelman syndrome with genotype-phenotype correlations. Data standards for clinical research data collection forms: current status and challenges. Clinical severity and quality of life in children and adolescents with Rett syndrome. Circulating markers of vascular injury and angiogenesis in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. IgA and IgG antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody engagement of Fc receptor genetic variants influences granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Association of vascular physical examination findings and arteriographic lesions in large vessel vasculitis. The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Contact Registry update: features and functionality. Gastrointestinal and nutritional problems occur frequently throughout life in girls and women with rett syndrome. Mexiletine for symptoms and signs of myotonia in nondystrophic myotonia: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: overview, progress, and future directions. Non-Dystrophic Myotonia: Prospective Study of Objective and Patient Reported Outcomes. Standardizing nasal nitric oxide measurement as a test for primary ciliary dyskinesia. Survey on retransplantation criteria for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. Causal Attributions about Disease Onset and Relapse in Patients with Systemic Vasculitis. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in 11 screening programs in the United States. Sodium phenylbutyrate decreases plasma branched-chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders. Value of commonly measured laboratory tests as biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Serum biomarkers in patients with relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (churg-strauss). Clinical features of childhood primary ciliary dyskinesia by genotype and ultrastructural phenotype. Disease Relapses among Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis: A Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study. A Novel Quantitative Computed Tomographic Analysis Suggests How Sirolimus Stabilizes Progressive Air Trapping in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Cesarean delivery is not associated with decreased at- birth fracture rates in osteogenesis imperfecta. The partnership of patient advocacy groups and clinical investigators in the rare diseases clinical research network. The Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score as a Measure of Disease Activity in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis. Caretaker Quality of Life in Rett Syndrome: Disorder Features and Psychological Predictors. A small n sequential multiple assignment randomized trial design for use in rare disease research. Clinical Features and Associated Likelihood of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in Children and Adolescents. Experience With Direct-to-Patient Recruitment for Enrollment Into a Clinical Trial in a Rare Disease: A Web-Based Study.

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Oh well medications used to treat bipolar discount cytotec 200 mcg with amex, I could expound for hours on what is wrong in medicine and medical education treatment synonym cheap cytotec amex. I have always been of the see one medicine list 100mcg cytotec visa, do one symptoms 8 days post 5 day transfer order cytotec with american express, teach one school, and have never felt that knowledge should not be shared with anyone interested, regardless of turf wars or other motives. Gas, of course, is self-explanatory and includes air in the lungs and upper airway, gas in the intestines, and gas such as nitrogen in so called vacuum spaces. It becomes black on a radiograph because there are few molecules to stop or attenuate the x-ray beam as it passes through the body to darken the film. Water density tissue makes up the majority of body parts and includes muscle and organs. Although water density tissue varies in its density even on plain film radiographs, it has a uniform appearance when compared to the other three densities of gas, fat and mineral. It is a lighter shade of gray than fat, but not as white as the mineral seen in bone or the really white appearance of metal, such as seen in an ingested foreign body like a coin. In figure # 1 we have appropriately labeled the four densities on a plain film of the abdomen. The red arrow points to the black density of gas seen in the right side of the colon. The yellow arrows indicate the slightly lighter density (than gas) of fat in the left hip joint capsule. The blue arrow shows the bright density of metal (mineral) in the R of the film marker. Mineral density, not quite as bright as the heavy metal marker, is also noted throughout the bones of the skeleton. One of the keys to successful film interpretation, like most diagnostics, is recognizing normals. Helpful aids to gaining experience include the use of standard references that depict variants of normal that one might see on a radiograph. Borderlands of the Normal and Early Pathologic in Skeletal Roentgenology, 3rd Edit. Yellow arrows indicate fat density in the cardiac fat pad and in the supraclavicular fossae. The red arrows point to the black density of air (gas) in the lungs and the green arrow indicates the water density of the heart muscle. The first part of the triangle is made up of the objective findings, which gives rise to the second side of the triangle, the differential diagnosis. I tell my students that if they learn nothing else during their short stay with us, they should learn to give the radiologist the third side of the triangle, which is history! Differential diagnosis for groups or single objective findings have been compiled by Drs. I consider their reference text an essential part of my library, and use it frequently. After awhile use of the gamuts becomes part of daily practice, and part of memory, so that the text needs to be referred to only in unusual cases or to refresh memory. The text is listed below for those interested, and I would advise diagnostic radiology residents to have a copy on hand. There are other things, which can aid the fledgling interpreter to gain confidence in seeing objective findings on the film. Lights overhead or empty adjacent lighted view boxes compromise what can be seen on the radiograph. However never accept a technically unsatisfactory film in the fear of exposing the patient to too much radiation. To put it in perspective, a single view of the chest exposes the patient to about the same amount of radiation he or she would get by flying from Denver to San Francisco in an airliner. For example, in the chest, the heart should be about half the size of the width of the rib cage (C-T ratio). Even experienced radiologists get caught once in awhile comparing films from two different patients, or rendering an opinion on the wrong patient because someone mixed up the films. Often it can be recovered by use of the hot light, or a lighter copy can be made in the dark room. Use a system to be sure you have gotten every bit of information necessary from the radiograph to make a reasonable diagnosis. Now with these basics in mind, let us turn to the first topic, one which is the most common, and one in which the second part of the diagnostic triangle, i. To that system I would add 1) the corners of the film and 2) a check of the labels. I also routinely check the medial ends of the clavicles when there are prior studies to compare. This is done not particularly to look for pathology, although occasionally abnormalities are seen, but because the clavicles are the "fingerprints" of the chest radiograph. Keep in mind my additions to the checklist, but memorize in some order the basic system, which is: 1. You will often get radiology reports describing different types of infiltrates in the lungs. The difference can best be appreciated by looking at a photomicrograph of normal vs. A bronchiole is not seen in this particular section, but the alveolar walls, the vascular walls and the walls of bronchi and bronchioles constitute the interstices of the lungs which when invaded by inflammatory cells results in (you guessed it! Note the appearance of the bronchovascular markings (red arrows) just above (cephalad) of the hemidiaphragms. The markings are called bronchovascular because small pulmonary arteries, veins and bronchioles travel together throughout the lungs and cannot be separated grossly in the radiograph unless there is disease present. This tissue is the interstices of the lungs, and if inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and phagocytes invade it, we see the gross result as interstitial infiltrate, as demonstrated in the photomicrograph below (figure #5). Photomicrograph of a section of lung in a patient with acute interstitial pneumonia. Red arrow shows beginning alveolar filling as well, which is what happens as the inflammation progresses. One would not be able to tell the difference from the acute phase on a chest radiograph until comparison films showed the process to have not changed significantly over a period of time. This rule gives the diagnostic radiologist a tremendous advantage in several areas as we will see later, but in the case of interstitial infiltrate it allows us to recognize it for what it is by the following observations: 1 -The bronchovascular markings lose their borders and become fuzzy. Note the result in the chest radiographs of patients with typical interstitial pneumonia. The red arrows point to typical air bronchograms in a patient with a segmental pneumonia. Note there is no silhouetting of the right heart border, indicating the infiltrate is in one of the posterior segments of the right lung base. Note the obvious combined interstitial and alveolar filling infiltrates, as well as an air bronchogram (red arrow). A note of caution: If a shallow inspiration radiograph is presented for interpretation the bronchovascular markings might not be separated enough to distinguish a real interstitial infiltrate from silhouetting due to failure to get enough air between them. Sometimes it takes a magnifying glass to be sure of the findings, especially in kids, obese patients or women with large breasts. I tell our students that if they can follow a bronchovascular marking out to its termination, then there is no silhouetting and thus no interstitial infiltrate. Now, if the inflammatory infiltrates in the interstices progress and begin to fill in or spill over into the alveolar spaces, the result is an alveolar-filling infiltrate. This reaction results in a whiteout of the alveolar air spaces and is called by radiologists "alveolar filling infiltrate" or "air-space disease". The yellow arrows indicate the whiteout of alveolar air spaces resulting in a solid band of consolidation in this patient who likely has some associated atelectasis of the right middle lobe as well. There are other patterns seen in the lungs in a chest radiograph that effect the air spaces or the interstices or both, but the recognition of these still requires your evaluation of the bronchovascular markings and air spaces. Some of these patterns include disseminated small irregular shadows and are termed reticular, reticulonodular, linear, or ill defined. The important thing, though, is to be consistent in looking for and recognizing abnormalities, and that requires evaluations of the markings and air spaces. In figure #8 on the next page is an example of a 11 patient with a reticulonodular pattern.

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The inhalation reference concentration is for continuous inhalation exposures and is appropriately expressed in units of mg/m3 or ppm medications depression order cytotec from india. Reference Dose (RfD)—An estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of the daily exposure of the human population to a potential hazard that is likely to be without risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime medicine urinary tract infection cheap 200mcg cytotec free shipping. Reproductive Toxicity—The occurrence of adverse effects on the reproductive system that may result from exposure to a chemical symptoms 0f ovarian cancer buy cytotec 100 mcg low price. The toxicity may be directed to the reproductive organs and/or the related endocrine system symptoms kidney cytotec 200mcg discount. The manifestation of such toxicity may be noted as alterations in sexual behavior, fertility, pregnancy outcomes, or modifications in other functions that are dependent on the integrity of this system. Retrospective Study—A type of cohort study based on a group of persons known to have been exposed at some time in the past. Data are collected from routinely recorded events, up to the time the study is undertaken. Retrospective studies are limited to causal factors that can be ascertained from existing records and/or examining survivors of the cohort. Risk—The possibility or chance that some adverse effect will result from a given exposure to a chemical. Risk Ratio—The ratio of the risk among persons with specific risk factors compared to the risk among persons without risk factors. A risk ratio greater than 1 indicates greater risk of disease in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group. No more than four excursions are allowed per day, and there must be at least 60 minutes between exposure periods. Target Organ Toxicity—This term covers a broad range of adverse effects on target organs or physiological systems (e. Teratogen—A chemical that causes structural defects that affect the development of an organism. Toxicokinetic—The absorption, distribution, and elimination of toxic compounds in the living organism. The toxicological profiles include an examination, summary, and interpretation of available toxicological information and epidemiologic evaluations of a hazardous substance. They are below levels that might cause adverse health effects in the people most sensitive to such chemical-induced effects. They are subject to change as new information becomes available concomitant with updating the toxicological profiles. A 90-day inhalation toxicity study of octabromodiphenyl oxide in albino rats, dated 04/04/02. Clinical and physical signs, body weight, food consumption, and survival were evaluated throughout the study. Comprehensive necropies, organ weight measurements, and histological examinations (including respiratory tract and thyroids) were performed following exposure termination. Effects noted in study and corresponding doses: Hepatic, nasal, lung, thyroid, and ovarian effects were observed. The liver was affected in both sexes as shown by dose-related increases in centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy at ≥16 mg/m3 and liver weight (absolute and relative) at 202 mg/m3. Changes in nasal goblet cells were increased at 202 mg/m3, but showed no clear dose-related increasing trends for incidence or severity. Histological changes in the lungs included alveolar histiocytosis and chronic active inflammation that were only clearly induced at 202 mg/m3. Corresponding total incidences of chronic active lung inflammation were 0/10, 0/10, 2/10 (both minimal), and 10/10 (5 minimal, 4 mild, 1 moderate) in males, and 0/10, 1/10 (minimal), 1/10 (minimal), and 10/10 (2 minimal, 5 mild, 3 moderate) in females. The lymph node effects correlated with the histological finding of granulomatous inflammation. There were no exposure-related gross or histopathological changes in the spleen, bone marrow, thymus, or other tissues, including thyroid. Qualitative histological evaluations of step sections of ovaries showed an absence of corpora lutea in 3/10 females at 202 mg/m3, compared to 0/10 in the control and lower exposure groups. This 30% incidence was interpreted to be a treatment-related effect because an absence of corpora lutea was considered unusual in rats at 20 weeks of age. Other findings included some hematological alterations in 202 mg/m3 females that were not considered to be exposure-related (slightly increased mean activated partial thromboplastin time, and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration without effects on red blood cell counts, hematocrit, or hemoglobin levels). Serum chemistry evaluations showed that cholesterol was significantly increased (66. Some other statistically significant serum chemistry alterations (increased mean globulin and total protein, decreased albumin/globulin ratio) also occurred in the 202 mg/m3 females, but were not considered exposure-related due to small magnitudes of changes and lack of similar findings in the males. Ultrastructural changes observed in rat ovaries following in utero and lactational exposure to low doses of a polybrominated flame retardant. Emergence of postnatal reflexes and developmental landmarks (eruption of incisors, fur development, eye opening, and testes descent) was evaluated in all pups (163–200/group). The right testis and caudal epididymis were retained for spermatid and sperm counts and morphology, respectively. Uterine and fetal weight was recorded, and fetuses were sexed and examined for external anomalies. F1 males were mated with untreated females in estrus (1:1) and the sexual behavior of each mating was recorded for 20 minutes. Histological evaluation of the ovary (10/group), uterus (5–7/group), and vagina (5–9/group) was performed. One ovary from one female offspring in each group was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Twenty virgin F1 females per group were mated with non-exposed males to evaluate fertility. The F2 fetuses were examined for external anomalies and when present, they were stained and examined for skeletal anomalies. However, significant delays in the eruption of incisors in F1 pups and the development of the cliff-drop aversion reflex were observed in F1 males in the 0. In both dose groups, the number of spermatids and sperm and daily sperm production were significantly decreased, compared with controls. Despite sperm alterations, no significant exposure-related effects were observed in male reproductive function or the majority of male sexual behaviors. The only significantly altered male sexual behavior was a 32% decrease in the percent of males with two or more ejaculations. No exposure-related changes were found for F1 female pregnancy rate, total implantation sites, implantation sites/dam, F2 fetuses/gravid dam, or total number of live F2 fetuses. Statistics were not reported; however, the resorption rates in the exposed rats were also reportedly increased compared with historical controls (average control resorption rate=5. In addition, the percentage of litters with resorptions was higher in the exposed females, being 47% in the control group and 69 and 72% in the 0. If an inhalation study in animals, list conversion factors used in determining human equivalent dose: Not applicable. No exposure-related changes were observed in F1 female fertility or F2 litter parameters. These findings indicate an initial decrease in activity, but also a lack of habituation to new surroundings. Significant reductions of 19–92% have been reported following gavage exposure at doses ≥10 and ≥0. Testes were fixed for histological analysis and labeling of apoptotic cells or prepared for analysis of sperm production. Daily sperm production was estimated by dividing the total number of mature spermatids per testis by 6. Effects noted in study and corresponding doses: Histological examination of the testes showed a significant increase in the number of multinucleated giant cells (arising from spermatocytes that aborted meiosis) at ≥0. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased by 23% in the 1 mg/kg/day group, compared with controls. If an inhalation study in animals, list conversion factors used in determining human equivalent dose: Not applicable.

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Cantrell M symptoms depression cytotec 200mcg overnight delivery, Bream-Rouwenhorst H treatment qt prolongation cheap cytotec 100 mcg overnight delivery, Steffensmeir A et al: Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome associated with alph-adrenergic receptor antagonists symptoms 0f heart attack order cytotec 100 mcg without a prescription. Chadha V medicine 606 buy 200 mcg cytotec fast delivery, Borooah S, They A et al: Floppy iris behaviour during cataract surgery: associations and variations. Cheung C, Awan M, Sandramouli S: Prevalence and clinical findings of tamsulosin-associated intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome. Keklikci U, Isen K, Unlu K et al: Incidence, clinical findings and management of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome associated with tamsulosin. Takmaz T, Can I: Clinical features, complications, and incidence of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in patients taking tamsulosin. Bell C, Hatch W, Fischer H et al: Association between tamsulosin and serious ophthalmic adverse events in older men following cataract surgery. Clark R, Hermann D, Cunningham G et al: Marked suppression of dihydrotestosterone in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia by dutasteride, a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. Ju X, Wu H, Zhang W et al: the clinical efficacy of epristeride in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Andriole G, Bruchovsky N, Chung L et al: Dihydrotestosterone and the prostate: the scientific rationale for 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. McConnell J, Wilson J, Goerge F et al: Finasteride, and inhibitor of 5-Reductase, suppresses prostatic dihydrotestosterone in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Wurzel R, Ray P, Major-Walker K et al: the effect of dutasteride on intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone concentrations in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kramer B, Hagerty K, Justman S et al: Use of 5-α-Reductase Inhibitors for Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention: American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Urological Association 2008 Clinical Practice Guideline Summary. Kramer B, Hagerty K, Justman S et al: Use of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Urological Association 2008 Clinical Practice Guideline. Roehrborn C, Prajsner A, Kirby R et al: A double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the onset of action of doxazosin gastrointestinal therapeutic system in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Roehrborn C, Lukkarinen O, Mark S et al: Long-term sustained improvement in symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia with the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride: results of 4- year studies. Barkin J, Guimaraes M, Jacobi G et al: Alpha-blocker therapy can be withdrawn in the majority of men following initial combination therapy with the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride. Foley S, Soloman L, Wedderburn A et al: A prospective study of the natural history of hematuria associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and the effect of finasteride. Haggstrom S, Torring N, Moller K et al: Effects of finasteride on vascular endothelial growth factor. Pareek G, Shevchuk M, Armenakas N et al: the effect of finasteride on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density: a possible mechanism for decreased prostatic bleeding in treated patients. Miller M, Puchner P: Effects of finasteride on hematuria associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: long-term follow-up. Delakas D, Lianos E, Karyotis I et al: Finasteride: a long-term follow-up in the treatment of recurrent hematuria associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Hahn R, Fagerstrom T, Tammela T et al: Blood loss and postoperative complications associated with transurethral resection of the prostate after pretreatment with dutasteride. Boccon-Gibod L, Valton M, Ibrahim H et al: Effect of dutasteride on reduction of intraoperative bleeding related to transurethral resection of the prostate. Sandfeldt L, Bailey D, Hahn R: Blood loss during transurethral resection of the prostate after 3 months of treatment with finasteride. Donohue J, Sharma H, Abraham R et al: Transurethral prostate resection and bleeding: a randomized, placebo controlled trial of role of finasteride for decreasing operative blood loss. Crea G, Sanfilippo G, Anastasi G et al: Pre-surgical finasteride therapy in patients treated endoscopically for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Lund L, Moller Ernst-Jensen K, torring N et al: Impact of finasteride treatment on perioperative bleeding before transurethral resection of the prostate: a prospective randomized study. Kaplan S, Roehrborn C, Rovner E et al: Tolterodine and tamsulosin for treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms and overactive bladder: a randomized controlled trial. Abrams P, Kaplan S, De Koning Gans H et al: Safety and tolerability of tolterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder in men with bladder outlet obstruction. Athanasopoulos A, Gyftopoulos K, Giannitsas K et al: Combination treatment with an alpha- blocker plus an anticholinergic for bladder outlet obstruction: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Wilt T, Ishani A, Stark G et al: Saw palmetto extracts for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. Shi R, Xie Q, Gang X et al: Effect of saw palmetto soft gel capsule on lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized trial in Shanghai, China. Cimentepe E, Unsal A, Saglam R: Randomized clinical trial comparing transurethral needle ablation with transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: results at 18 months. Roehrborn C, Burkhard F, Bruskewitz R et al: the effects of transurethral needle ablation and resection of the prostate on pressure flow urodynamic parameters: analysis of the United States randomized study. Hindley R, Mostafid A, Brierly R et al: the 2-year symptomatic and urodynamic results of a prospective randomized trial of interstitial radiofrequency therapy vs transurethral resection of the prostate. Semmens J, Wisniewski Z, Bass A et al: Trends in repeat prostatectomy after surgery for benign prostate disease: application of record linkage to healthcare outcomes. Helfand B, Mouli S, Dedhia R et al: Management of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia with open prostatectomy: results of a contemporary series. Condie J, Jr, Cutherell L et al: Suprapubic prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia in rural Asia: 200 consecutive cases. Tubaro A, Carter S, Hind A et al: A prospective study of the safety and efficacy of suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Hill A, Njoroge P: Suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy in a rural Kenyan hospital. Gacci M, Bartoletti R, Figlioli S et al: Urinary symptoms, quality of life and sexual function in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy before and after prostatectomy: a prospective study. Adam C, Hofstetter A, Deubner J et al: Retropubic transvesical prostatectomy for significant prostatic enlargement must remain a standard part of urology training. Varkarakis I, Kyriakakis Z, Delis A et al: Long-term results of open transvesical prostatectomy from a contemporary series of patients. Sotelo R, Spaliviero M, Garcia-Segui A et al: Laparoscopic retropubic simple prostatectomy. Hochreiter W, Thalmann G, Burkhard F et al: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate combined with electrocautery resection: the mushroom technique. Hurle R, Vavassori I, Piccinelli A et al: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate combined with mechanical morcellation in 155 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kuntz R, Lehrich K: Transurethral holmium laser enucleation versus transvesical open enucleation for prostate adenoma greater than 100 gm. Gilling P, Kennett K, Fraundorfer M: Holmium laser resection v transurethral resection of the prostate: results of a randomized trial with 2 years of follow-up. Gilling P, Cass C, Cresswell M et al: Holium laser resection of the prostate: preliminary results of a new method for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Gilling P, Mackey M, Cresswell M et al: Holmium laser versus transurethral resection of the prostate: a randomized prospective trial with 1-year followup. Malek R, Kuntzman R, Barrett D: High power potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser vaporization prostatectomy. Fu W, Hong B, Yang Y et al: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Malek R, Kuntzman R, Barrett D: Photoselective potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser vaporization of the benign obstructive prostate: observations on long-term outcomes. Saporta L, Aridogan I, Erlich N et al: Objective and subjective comparison of transurethral resection, transurethral incision and balloon dilatation of the prostate. Reihmann M, Knes J, Heisey D et al: Transurethral resection versus incision of the prostate: a randomized, prospective study. Wasson J, Reda D, Bruskewitz R et al: A comparison of transurethral surgery with watchful waiting for moderate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate. Baumert H, Ballaro A, Dugardin F et al: Laparoscopic versus open simple prostatectomy: a comparative study. The expert Panel examined three overarching key questions for pharmacotherapeutic, surgical, and alternative medicine therapies: 1. What are the adverse events associated with each of the included treatments and how do the adverse events compare across treatments?

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