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The therapy is usually delivered in two concurrent partsindividual psychotherapy and skills training allergy testing johnstown pa entocort 100mcg without prescription. The skills training component has been manualised and is usually run in group sessions of two-and-a-half hours duration allergy treatment for kids order entocort cheap, once a week over 12 months2 allergy symptoms from pollen best 100mcg entocort. A Manual of Mental Health Care in General Practice 225 confronting the individual allergy treatment vancouver discount entocort online amex, rather than on the persons past problems, including any past abuse. Identifying and clarifying the precipitants to self-harming behaviour is often difcult because of the persons tendency to avoid problems through the use of denial, dissociation and acting out. The precipitant to self-harming may be an unpleasant afective state, for example, a feeling of emptiness and boredom when left alone. Use counselling and structured problem solving to help these people fnd more efective solutions to their problems. The techniques of supportive psychotherapy will be used for people with severe borderline personality disorder. General practitioners should focus on helping people with borderline personality disorder identify, clarify and solve their current problems, rather than dwelling at length on their past abuse. People with borderline personality disorder arouse intense countertransference feelings. In response to an idealised transference, you may be tempted to act out in a variety of ways. Feeling fattered at being told that you are the only person who has ever really understood and helped a person, you may try to live up to this image of the perfect therapist and have fantasies of rescuing him or her. You may begin seeing a patient out of hours and in places outside your consulting rooms. You may fnd yourself accepting dinner engagements and even asking the person home. It is not unheard of for such patients to eventually move in with their therapists and enter into a sexual relationship with them. True to the countertransference, doctors who are drawn into these boundary violations typically act on the belief that the only way the persons problems could be alleviated was through an intimate relationship with them. A corollary of the persons idealisation of you may be his or her devaluation of others involved in their care. Failing to acknowledge and recognise feeling so special, you may fnd yourself criticising your colleagues, accusing them of being unable to understand the person and of not caring enough about him or her. For devalued therapists who are struggling to cope with a hostile, self-harming patient, there is nothing harder to tolerate than the self-righteous, idealised therapist who is critical of their best attempts at treatment. People with borderline personality disorder may at different times idealise or devalue their therapists. This confict can be understood through the concept of splitting, a defence mechanism that has both intrapsychic and external manifestations. The intrapsychic component involves people having polarised views of themselves and others, either all good or all bad. Instead of recognising that people are a combination of both good and bad, such people keep good and bad representations of themselves and of others separate and compartmentalised. In some cases, they have been the victims of abuse and, by keeping good and bad object representations apart, they protect the good from being destroyed by the bad. The external manifestations of splitting are seen when confict arises between other people in their milieuin particular, between idealised and devalued therapists. If you treat these people, you will experience what it is like to be treated as both good and bad. Idealisation and devaluation can be understood as external manifestations of splitting. Intrapsychic splitting involves keeping good and bad representations of the self and of others separate and compartmentalised. While the intention behind these behaviours may not be to commit suicide, people with borderline personality disorder have a suicide rate of around 8 per cent. The risk of suicide in people who self-harm has been estimated to be 140 times the population average. The self-harming behaviour may be a maladaptive way of seeking help, a behaviour learnt within past abusive relationships. It can also be understood as a type of acting out through which an unbearable afect (emptiness, boredom, anxiety, helplessness) can be neutralised. Anger is prominent indeed, the afect may at times be more accurately described as hate. Instead of acting out the hate directly, you might, through reaction formation, do the opposite and make desperate attempts to rescue the person. Rescue fantasies may arise from anxiety and guilt about the persons behaviour, and a feeling that you are helpless to do anything about it. There is the danger that the extraordinary measures you take to stop him or her from self-harming may ultimately do more harm than good. They will reinforce the persons feelings of helplessness and could even lead to boundary violations. Instead of embarking on desperate attempts at rescue, set clear limits about what you can and cannot realistically do. For example, acknowledge that ultimately the safety of a young woman is in her own hands. Seek an agreement with her to seek other more adaptive ways of dealing with her feelings by, for example, speaking to someone about how she feels. At the same time, acknowledge her need for such behaviour; recognise that it is a solution to a painful and distressing state of being. Use structured problem solving to fnd more adaptive ways of dealing with stressors. In response to self-harming behaviour express your concern, but acknowledge the limits of what you can do. Focus on the here and now issues and use structured problem solving to deal with him or her. People with borderline personality disorder, unable to articulate why they have harmed themselves, may sometimes present a bland, smiling afect in response to self-harming behaviour. This response can be understood as a form of splitting in which the impulse to self-harm has become separated from the idea and the afect with which it was associated. As children, this was often the only way these people had of dealing with sexual abuse or other traumatic experiences over which they had no control. If you do so, you are, like the patient, probably defending against acknowledging your own fear and despair. Do not be annoyed by the bland afectacknowledge the attempt to put a brave face on a frightening and distressing experience. Ask about precipitants in order to help the person to connect the afect with the idea and the impulse. For example, it might be useful for a young man to write down what is running through his mind at times when he feels the need to harm himself. In response to a bland, smiling affect, do not clown and joke or get annoyed with the person. Acknowledge to yourself any voyeuristic gratifcation that you experience to ensure you do not act out upon it by, for A Manual of Mental Health Care in General Practice 227 example, probing the person for more detailed descriptions of the abuse. A paradox exhibited by people with borderline personality disorder is that while being in a state of emotional turmoil, they may nevertheless be unable to adequately grieve their losses. Narcissistic personality disorder A certain degree of narcissism (as well as dependency, suspiciousness, orderliness and denial) is normal and adaptive. Separating pathological narcissism from healthy self-regard is not always easy, but an important distinguishing feature is the inability of the narcissistic person to love others. A failure of the narcissistic person to live up to his of her high expectations can predispose to depression. People with narcissistic personality disorder are prone to depression and substance abuse when they fail to live up to their high expectations of themselves. Grandiosity, an insatiable need for admiration and a lack of empathy with others characterise the disorder.

It was not for mally proven allergy laryngitis treatment buy generic entocort online, however allergy and immunology fellowship purchase genuine entocort on line, that both of these cell lineages originated clonal ly from a common precursor allergy shots numbness arm cheap entocort 100mcg without prescription. Together allergy testing labcorp cheap entocort 100mcg, these results indicated that trans planted fetal hepatoblasts proliferate more readily than adult hepatocytes, and some fetal liver cells may remain bipotential. Oval Cells Oval cells are similar to fetal hepatoblasts in that they are also bipotential. These cells have, therefore, been of interest in liver repopulation experi ments. Hepatocyte progenitor (or oval) cells can be isolated from the liver of rats treated with D-galactosamine (Lemire et al. Copper depletion causes atrophy of pancreatic acini and proliferation of duct-like oval cells expressing genes in the hepatocyte lineage (Rao et al. Transplantation of both hepatic and pancreatic-derived oval cells has been reported in the rat (Dabeva et al. Upon transplantation, these cells proliferated modestly and differentiated into mature hepato cytes (Dabeva et al. However, because no in vivo selection model was used, their true capacity for liver repopulation was not demonstrated in these experiments. Thus, oval cells can become hepatocytes (by morphological criteria) upon transplantation into the liver, but their proliferative capacity remains unknown. Pancreatic Hepatocytes During embryogenesis, the main pancreatic cell types, including ducts, ductules, acinar cells, and the endocrine,, and cells, develop from a Liver Stem Cells 479 common endodermal precursor located in the ventral foregut (Spooner et al. The hepatic anlage develops ventrally toward the cardiac mesenchyme, which induces the hepatoblast differentiation pathway. The pancreas buds from the same region, with its ventral lobe growing anteriorly in the same direction as the liver and its larger dorsal lobe growing posteriorly. Thus, the ventral lobe of the pancreas is partic ularly closely related anatomically to the liver. The signals that govern the respective developmental pathways are only beginning to be understood (Gittes and Rutter 1992; Rudnick et al. This tight relationship between liver and pancreas in embryonic development has raised the possibility that a common hepato-pancreatic precursor/stem cell may persist in adult life in both the liver and pan creas. Indeed, several independent lines of evidence suggest that adult pancreas contains cells which can give rise to hepatocytes. The best known example is the emergence of hepatocytes in copper-depleted rats after re-feeding of copper (Rao et al. In this system, wean ling rats are fed a copper-free diet for 8 weeks, which leads to complete acinar atrophy, and then are re-fed copper. Within weeks, cells with mul tiple hepatocellular characteristics emerge from the remaining pancreat ic ducts. This work has been interpreted to suggest the presence of a pan creatic liver stem cell (Reddy et al. This notion is also supported by the appearance of hepatocellular markers in human pancreatic cancers (Hruban et al. More recently, a specific cytokine has been identi fied as a candidate to drive this process. Thus, the existence of pancreatic liver precursors has been shown in sev eral different mammalian species and under multiple experimental con ditions. Both adult liver and adult pancreas may continue to harbor a small population of primitive hepato-pancreatic stem cells with the potential to give rise to the same differentiated progeny as during embryogenesis. Transplantation experiments have verified the pancreatic liver stem cell hypothesis. As mentioned above, pancreatic oval cells induced by copper depletion were shown to give rise to morphologically normal hepatocytes in vivo (Dabeva et al. Extensive liver repopulation (>50%) was observed in about 10% of transplant recipients, and another 35% had histological evidence for donor-derived hepatocyte nodules (Wang et al. Thus, adult murine pancreas contains hepa tocyte precursors, even under normal, nonpathologic conditions. It remains to be determined whether these pancreatic liver stem cells also harbor other differentiation potential, particularly toward the pancreatic endocrine lineage. Bone Marrow-derived Hepatocytes Recent work has documented that the adult bone marrow of mammals contains cells with a variety of differentiation capacities. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatocyte injury to induce oval cell proliferation. Female mice that had received lethal irradiation and bone marrow trans plantation from a male donor displayed 12% Y-chromosome-positive epithelial cells in their livers. Most recently, two reports demonstrated that donor-derived epithelial cells are also present in human patients who have undergone a gender-mismatched bone marrow transplantation Liver Stem Cells 481 (Alison et al. In all these studies, the epithe lial nature of the cells was demonstrated morphologically and by the expression of hepatocyte-specific markers. The nature of the bone mar row cell responsible for repopulation was not shown (adherent versus nonadherent, etc. Although it seems likely, it has not yet been for mally shown that the same clonal precursor is responsible for both lin eages. The physiologic significance of bone marrow-derived hepatocytes in the response to liver injury is not known at this time. However, it is pos sible that circulating hepatocyte precursors are an important contributor to progenitor-dependent liver regeneration. Neurosphere-derived Liver Precursors In the mouse, neuronal stem cells cultured in neurospheres can give rise to many different cell lineages (Bjornson et al. Cultured neu rospheres can effect repopulation of the hematopoietic system after trans plantation (Bjornson et al. More recently, cultured neurospheres were injected into the blastocyst of a recipient embryo. Upon analysis of adult mice derived from such injections, the donor cells were found in many different tissues, including liver. Donor-derived cells were thought to express the hepatocyte phenotype (Clarke et al. Putative liver progenitors from several mam malian species, including mouse, rat, pig, and human, have been isolat ed and propagated in primary tissue culture. Finegold vitro culture of liver progenitor cells is based on the growth of epithelial cells that are liver-derived but express either no hepatocyte markers or markers of both bile duct epithelium and hepatocytes. The medical purpose is to generate large numbers of hepatocytes in vitro for therapeutic trans plantation. The scientific aims are to understand the factors that control the differentiation of these cells into hepatocytes and biliary duct epithe lium. To date, the only cell lines that have had documented therapeutic effects have been cell lines or primary cultures derived from hepatocytes themselves (Gupta and Chowdhury 1994; Fox et al. Despite the availability of a variety of good in vitro model systems, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the transition of progenitor cells to hepatocytes and/or bile duct epithelium. Nonetheless, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating the stem cell-to-hepatocyte transition, and liver repopulation with this cell line has not yet been reported. Oval Cell Lines Multiple laboratories have isolated oval cell lines from carcinogen treat ed rats (Sells et al. Consistent with the proposed role of oval cells in the forma tion of hepatocarcinoma, these cell lines form tumors upon transplanta tion into immunodeficient recipients. The isolation, culture, and trans Liver Stem Cells 483 plantation of these cells has been well reviewed (Sirica et al. Although the phenotypic properties of these cell lines have been described in great detail, the molecular mechanisms regulating phenotyp ic transitions are not well understood. Mouse Cell Lines Although it is normally difficult to establish permanent cell lines from mouse liver, such lines can be established routinely from transgenic mice that overexpress a constitutively active form of c-met (Amicone et al. Two morphologically distinct types of cells emerge from such cultures, both of which grow extensively in culture under certain media conditions, but can be induced to differentiate with the appropriate signals. Clonal cell lines with epithelial morphology resemble hepatocytes and give rise to only hepatocyte-like offspring. In contrast, palmate clones can give rise to two distinct lineages, depend ing on the differentiation conditions used. Some general conditions that can cause differentiation of palmate cells in either direction have been discovered.

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To this extent allergy zone 3 purchase entocort 100 mcg without a prescription, it is worth noting that a comprehensive analysis concerning the rioters as a group or 3 the study aimed at a better understanding of why the riots occurred and spread from Tottenham north London to allergy forecast nyc mold cheap 100mcg entocort with amex other parts of the capital and cities across England allergy forecast delaware buy cheap entocort 100mcg online. Then allergy quick dissolve strips buy entocort in united states online, in the attempt to further analyse the other major actor, namely the rioters, another list of concordances was retrieved with the keywords rioter*/ looter*/ offender*/ thug*/ mob* which appeared as the most frequent and representative terms to define the whole group. To such keywords, the pre modifying adjective young was also added since it was frequently found in nominal groups like young people, young groups of, etc. Due to the very high number of concordances retrieved, a close reading of 300 randomly selected concordances in each newspaper was carried out to focus on the descriptions and/or evaluations of the rioters, and to examine the potential differences in such construals. In order to have a representative sample of all the articles published by each newspaper, 100 randomly selected concordances were retrieved on three occasions, in order to increase the possibility of having a significant variety of instances featuring the keywords under investigation, in spite of the fact that some concordances could appear repeatedly. Focus on the participants: Mark Duggan Mark Duggan, the 29-year-old man living in Tottenham (London) who was shot dead by police, was under investigation by a subdivision of the Metropolitan Police, Operation Trident, on suspicion that he was planning to commit a crime and was in possession of a handgun. Due to the numerous changes in the police reports concerning what happened and to the fact that circumstances remained very controversial, the media gave varying accounts of who Duggan was when describing the events that led to his shooting. Searching for the keyword Mark/Duggan, 98 concordances could be retrieved from the Daily Mail, 85 of which actually referred to Duggan (rather than to other people called Mark, the verb to mark or the noun mark). From a close reading of the extended lines, the keyword can be said to co-occur with a series of recurring images that are summarized in the Table below. Great prominence is given to the reporting of Duggan as the nephew of a well-known crime boss (boasting his gang had more guns than the police), to his friends words claiming he was one of their fallen soldiers once again clearly recalling the world of gangs when not explicitly calling Duggan a Tottenham gangsta. Rather little emphasis is given to the reporting of his relatives and friends who describe him as an innocent victim and family man, a loving father idolising his children. From such data, further concordances that were not so frequent as to appear with a high percentage of occurrences in Table 3 could still be retrieved. Among them, the interview to one of Duggans primary school teachers claiming that Mark 47 was one of the most disruptive children, always carrying a knife and beating up other pupils, together with reports stating that Duggan was said to have become paranoid about his own safety (thus carrying a gun for protection). Moving to the Daily Mirror, 63 concordances could be retrieved with the keyword Mark/Duggan of which 47 had Duggan as their actual referent with the most frequently recurring expressions displayed in the table below. Keyword Recurring images % of emerging from occurrence concordances Mr Duggan 20% Mark/ a local man 9% Duggan police shooting 4% victim Table 4: Daily Mirror Table 4 shows that the Daily Mirror usually employs the courtesy title Mr, which is a sign of respect in itself, and often describes Duggan either as a local man (thus resorting to what seems to be a neutral expression to give information on him) or as the victim of a police shooting (highlighting the fact that, strictly speaking, he was a victim whose life was taken away in a fatal shooting in ambiguous circumstances). The newspaper also mentions Duggans gangster image, but with some hedging and usually clarifying they are referring to police sources (he was described as a well-known gangster by police sources), unlike the Daily Mail. Moving to the quality press, with the Times, a slightly more complex frame emerges from the 131 concordances retrieved 110 actually referring to Duggan (Table 5). First of all, he is mentioned with the courtesy title Mr, and a remarkable emphasis is given to the polarity emerging from his family and friends portrayals as well as from police sources depicting him, at the same time, as a drug dealer having a role in the criminal underworld and a loving father, as a man under close surveillance and a man spending his time with his kids. With its 323 concordances (293 concerning Duggan), the Guardian certainly offers the most articulated picture of Duggan, covering a wide range of aspects of his life, personality and activities. The newspaper gives plenty of information about him, drawing on a variety of sources ranging from police to family and allowing equal opportunities and space to differing 49 viewpoints. Due to this variety, the percentages of occurrences of the concordances are very low, since there seems to be no significantly prevailing depiction of him. Keyword Recurring images % of emerging from occurrence concordances 29-year-old man and 4% father of four well loved, an angel, a loving family man, a good dad who idolised his kids, 3% a loving boy with a good heart, known to the police Mark/ but with no criminal Duggan convictions, peacemaker, harassed by the police for years (family and friends portrayals) unarmed at the moment 2% he was shot Tottenham man/resident 2% hardened north London gangster and drug dealer, 2% in possession of a gun, followed by police believing the situation was a crime in action, having some illegal drugs in his blood (police portrayals) Table 6: the Guardian 50 the many sources that the Guardian employs in its reports result in what seems to be a more balanced approach, devoting a lot of space to contrasting positions in an attempt to clarify the circumstances in which the shooting took place. Even when mentioning the gangster image, the Guardian claims that some of the messages posted by Duggans friends on his Facebook page could suggest a possible gang involvement since they referred to him as a soldier, a true star boy, and a five star general, still carefully hedging the utterances. Focus on the participants: the rioters Moving to the portrayal of the second social actor under investigation, the rioters, the Daily Mail seems to have a very oriented focus. Table 7 displays the most frequent and representative ways in which they were depicted as emerging from the concordances that could be retrieved. Keyword Recurring images emerging % of from concordances occurrence hardened or known criminals having previous criminal 10% convictions or cautions alienated, angry, disaffected rioter*/ young people with no respect 5% looter*/ and a severe disregard for offender*/ property and community thug*/ cheating the benefits system, mob*/ claiming disability benefits, and 4% young getting council houses under 25, the youngest rioters being 11 in London and 9 in 3% Manchester Table 7: Daily Mail 51 the prevailing image of the rioters emerging from the Daily Mail is that of hardened criminals who should have been in prison. The paper underlines the fact that British society needs to face this new criminal underclass, tackling the sick and irresponsible behaviour of those they define as young thugs. Such reporting is aptly achieved by choosing a specific set of sources: police sources, claiming that offenders were often linked to gangs, together with conservative political sources, in particular, the Home Secretary Theresa May a representative of the Conservative Party who stresses that the vast majority of rioters were not protesting, they were merely thieving, driven by a desire for instant gratification. In agreement with the positions adopted by May, the newspaper appears very straightforward in defining the rioters as greedy (having identified greed as the main and almost exclusive reason for their deeds), still blaming others the police, the Government, society for their actions, not accepting their responsibilities. So the rioters deeds are solely described as opportunistic looting targeting luxury brands, with no other political aim. As for the Daily Mirror, the depiction of the rioters features a series of recurring issues in common with the Daily Mail; above all the rioters are depicted as career criminals motivated by non political reasons apart from sheer, greedy opportunism. As Table 8 shows, the most frequent descriptions emerging from the 300 randomly selected concordances represent this social actor as being brazen and bold, too angry and upset to feel any kind of fear or shame for what they were doing. At the same time, the newspaper also underlines that the very young age of the rioters and looters involved in the events termed as morality-free kids urges the British society to face the moral issue raised by this generation of adults of tomorrow. However, the paper also 52 seems to attempt a more in-depth reporting, highlighting the need for the youth to believe they have a place in society. Keyword Recurring images emerging % of from concordances occurrence rioter*/ brazen, feeling no fear, angry looter*/ and upset, shameless, mindless 10% offender*/ and merciless, with no political thug*/ agenda mob*/ young, children as young as 8 young were reported to have joined the looting, most rioters were 5% under 24, the youngest in London was 8 disadvantaged, poor, on benefits, failing at school and 5% black young black men still feeling huge resentment towards the 3% police Table 8: Daily Mirror Among the other concordances that did not feature a significantly high percentage of occurrences, but were still part of the reporting of the Daily Mirror, the newspaper highlights the police claims according to which the Home Secretary Theresa May was warned, twice, that widespread rioting was likely to happen since the atmosphere on the streets was at a boiling point. However, she completely dismissed the idea, thus explicitly stressing the responsibilities of the Conservative Party (of which May was a representative). The other major topic that finds some relevance in the Daily Mirror (and that was not mentioned by the Daily Mail) regards the race factor: while acknowledging that these riots cannot be 53 named race riots, the paper states that race played a part in the 2011 events mostly due to the resentment felt by young black people towards the police. They overtly define race and religion as the unspoken element in the events, which seems, at least, an attempt to further problematise and contextualise the whole issue. With the Times more points in common with the Mirror can be (surprisingly) noted, among them the description of the rioters as criminals, young, poor, on benefits, with low education, black, with an indication of race as a significant element in the events. Table 9 shows a remarkable emphasis on the rioters feelings of hopelessness, abandonment, and neglect, which seems to provide a sort of explanation for the events. The newspaper insists on the fact that young people feel they have no stake in society, something which the Government needs to address. Indeed, according to the newspaper, they were born out of a heady concoction of rising inequality, widespread social disenfranchisement, economic volatility and growing youth unemployment. While stressing the urging need to tackle the complex questions lying behind the events, the newspaper interestingly (and perhaps surprisingly, given its well-known political stance) devotes its attention to the voices of the young rioters themselves, to allow some space to their points of view on the matter. According to these voices, the riots were about striking back against inequality, they were meant to signal a payback time towards police and their power abuses. As for the portrayal of the rioters in the Guardian (Table 10), we can notice the confirmation of a position that emerged in the Times: the rioters reasons are definitely political. In fact, the rioters are described as far more politically conscious than many first thought. The Guardian identifies a set of extremely serious problems affecting the relations between the police and youth, resulting in an explosive potential for the riots. Great emphasis is also given to the perceptions, feelings and thoughts of the rioters (emerging from the interviews held as part of the Reading the Riots sociological research) as pivotal motivations for the disturbances, as shown in Table 10. Keyword Recurring images emerging % of from concordances occurrence feeling a deep-seated and visceral antipathy towards police, widespread anger and 10% frustration at the way police rioter*/ engage with communities, looter*/ concerned about disintegrating offender*/ relations between police and thug*/ young people (due to stop and mob*/ search tactics), indicating young policing as a very important factor in causing the disturbances, interpreting the riots as a battle, a war perceiving a lack of justice and respect, feeling dislocated from the opportunities available to others, feeling a profound sense 6% of alienation, harbouring a range of grievances, a pervasive sense of injustice that was economic (no jobs, no 56 money, no opportunity) or more broadly social (how they felt they were treated compared with others), saying their confrontations with police made them feel powerful, feeling they had nothing to lose coming from the most deprived boroughs in England, poverty 5% being one of the key reasons behind the riots mainly young and male, coming from a cross-section of 5% local communities, with previous convictions is not reliable united to fight against a 2 % common enemy: the authorities Table 10: the Guardian According to the newspaper and the enquiries it resorts to, poverty is thought to be one of the key reasons behind the August riots, together with a sense of alienation uniting a part of the rioters, namely black people, who feel they are unfairly and disproportionally targeted by the polices stop and search tactics. The most striking element emerging from the most frequent and representative extended concordance lines retrieved in the Guardian is that among the major factors fuelling the riots there was a deep anger together with a sense of distrust and antipathy towards the police, mainly due to their discriminatory and unfair targeting of some people, in particular. These feelings led those involved in the riots to put hostilities aside and unite against a common enemy: the authorities. Moreover, the newspaper is the one that more overtly admits that although the riots were not 57 entirely about race, race is still a hot and tricky issue among minority groups who feel alienated and not belonging to the British society. Indeed, many rioters interviewed by the Guardian complained about racial discrimination, mentioning a mixture of racism and Islamophobia that they could distinctly perceive and that fuelled their anger and lawlessness. Conclusions In an attempt to summarise the findings emerging from the afore-mentioned analysis, the four newspapers under investigation can be regarded as featuring different attitudes towards the social actors examined, Duggan and the rioters. The Daily Mail employs a series of linguistic devices to report the events that seem to enhance the emotional properties of the words and phrases employed to elicit a sense of shared and irrevocable condemnation for Duggans lifestyle (downplaying the act of shooting by the police and suggesting a sort of moral justification, after all he was just a gangster) as much as for the rioters misdeeds (putting all the blame on them). Indeed, the newspaper seems to grant very little access to the rioters in terms of self-expression and representation, which consequently produces a rather unbalanced reporting of the different viewpoints. As for the Daily Mirror, there are few occurrences in which Duggan is described as a well-known gangster; overall the newspaper does not offer many instances of negatively evaluative language, it employs fewer connotative expressions 58 that appear to aim at a slightly less biased representation of Duggan. Similarly, in the case of the rioters, while expressing its strong disapproval for the people it defines as morality-free kids, the newspaper also attempts an analysis into the causes of the riots. More specifically, while giving a negative portrayal by describing the protagonists as coward, violent, wild, outrageous, and arrogant, the newspaper also stresses the fact that the country needs to face the challenges posed by the events by tackling important issues. Therefore, generally speaking, even when some negatively connotative words and/or phrases are employed, they are usually mitigated by some kind of hedging, toning down utterances that might trigger certain images in the minds of potential readers. On the whole, the newspaper adopts an approach that aims at accounting for a variety of perspectives and viewpoints. Indeed, references to different sources are more numerous than in the previous newspaper: institutional and political voices (both Liberal and Conservative) find their space, as well as those of police authorities and ordinary people giving their impressions and comments on the disturbances.

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